Tarrant Institute Director Penny Bishop is a Professor of Middle Level Education at the University of Vermont where she teaches future middle grades educators and conducts research on schooling for young adolescents. Penny has served as Principal Investigator on numerous grants, bringing over $6 million dollars to Vermont schools to improve the learning and lives of middle grades students. A former middle level English and Social Studies teacher, Penny was appointed to the National Middle School Association’s Research Advisory Board and is President of the American Educational Research Association’s group on Middle Level Education Research. She is co-author of five books on effective middle grades practice. In 2008, she served as policy advisor on fellowship to the New Zealand Ministry of Education, providing input and research on effective schooling policies for students in the middle years in that country. Outside of work, Penny enjoys time with her husband and two middle school-aged sons; loves international travel; studies Maori; and loses terribly at solitaire.